Free Shipping for orders over $49 within the U.S. Use code 'FREESHIPPING'

Animal Studies

June 09, 2020

Animal Studies by

Scutellarin, a flavonoid purified from E. breviscapus, protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats with acute myocardial I/R injury and anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R)-induced H9c2 injuries. Xu 2020


Scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, ameliorated bilateral hind limb ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung damage in rats most probably through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects. Ibrahim 2019


Scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, attenuated all obesity indicators tested in a mouse model of obesity induced by high-fat diet. The antagonistic effect on hyperlipidemia was a result of repression of the lipid synthesis pathway promoting fatty acid oxidation and increased cholesterol output. Lin 2019


Scutellarin from E. breviscapus significantly inhibited the cartilage degradation of DMM-induced osteoarthritis in mice. In vitro, scutellarin inhibited inflammation and protected cartilage from degeneration by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK signaling pathways. Liu 2019


Scutellarin from E. breviscapus inhibited the inflammatory response stimulated by TNF-α in primary murine chondroctyes, and inhibited the inflammatory reaction and cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis mouse model, a mechanism associated with NF-κB and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Wang 2019


In an aluminum chloride plus D‑galactose‑induced AD mouse model, scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, reduced the deposition of amyloid β1‑42 and the expression of phosphorylated‑Tau in rat hippocampus. It enhanced antioxidant levels and reduced ROS. Hu 2018


Scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, reduced the degree of myocardial infarction induced by isoprenaline by improving antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory capacities in rats. Huang 2018


Oral administration of scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, significantly improved the survival of mice with bacterial sepsis. Scutellarin treatment significantly reduced serum IL-1β levels and attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver of E. coli-infected mice. Liu 2018


Oral administration of scutellarin, the major constituent of E. breviscapus, dose-dependently ameliorated hyperlipidemia in high-fat diet-fed rats and alleviated oxidative stress in rat serum, mimicking the effects of reference drug atorvastatin. Mo 2018


Scutellarin, from E. Breviscapus, ameliorated spatial cognitive impairment caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through suppressing Aβ formation and microglial activation in brain tissues in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Shin 2018


Scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, significantly inhibited the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells, induced cell apoptosis, and triggered autophagy through ERK1/2 and AKT sigaling pathways. It also reduced tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft nude mice experiment. Sun 2018


Scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, inhibited the expression of NLRP3, reduced the upregulation of ASC, and cleaved caspase-1, IL-18, and IL-1β in a rat acute glaucoma model. Retinal ganglion cells survival rate was increased and the number of impaired retinal microglial cells reduced. Zhu 2018


Breviscapine inhibited the GSK3β signaling pathway to promote neurobehavioral function following neurotrauma in rats. Jiang 2017


Breviscapine, from E. breviscapus, significantly improved neurobehavioral dysfunction at 6 and 9 days after injection in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. Interleukin-6 expression was markedly down-regulated following breviscapine treatment. Jiang 2017


Scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, alleviated cognitive impairment in a mouse model of hypoxia by promoting proliferation and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells. Wang 2017


Administration of scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, for 2 wks prevented collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Results suggested a novel effect of scutellarin involving the inhibition of TLR4/NF‑κB‑mediated inflammation. Zhang 2017


Scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, alleviated angiographic vasospasm and improved neurological function 48h after subarachnoid hemorrhage and enhanced the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) at the intima of cerebral arteries, in rats Li 2016


Breviscapine, from E. breviscapus, preconditioning attenuated liver ischemia reperfusion injury in rats via inhibiting liver oxidative stress reaction. The protective mechanism probably inhibited Mfn2 protein and mRNA expression. Lin 2016


Scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, alleviated motor deficits in a mouse model for multiple sclerosis, possibly by inhibiting neural stem cell apoptosis and promoting differentiation of NSCs to myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Wang 2016


Breviscapine, from E. breviscapus, prevented postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation in rats, potentially via synergetic effects that decrease fibrosis by inhibiting inflammation, upregulating peritoneal fibrinolytic activity and regulating the TGF and/or Smad signaling pathway. Zhang 2016


In a rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, breviscapine, from E. breviscapus, reduced the myocardium infarct size and production of cardiac troponin in serum. An in vitro study showed these effects were partially inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase specific inhibitor LY294002. Wang 2015


Breviscapine (from E. breviscapus) injection significantly ameliorated neurologic deficit, reduced infarct volume and water content and suppressed the levels of NSE in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Upregulation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway expression is a possible mechanism. Guo 2014


The combination of enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) and breviscapine (from E. breviscapus) was superior to monotherapies for renoprotection in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Xu 2013


Herba Erigerontis injection, from aqueous extract of E. breviscapus, showed no effects on rat CYP1A2, CYP2C11 and CYP2E1, however, it demonstrated potential inhibitory effects on rat CYP2D4 and CYP3A2. Han 2012


Pretreatment with breviscapine, from E. breviscapus, ameliorated high-glucose induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells from rat thoracic aortas via inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK) signaling. He 2012


In a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of cerebral ischemia, caffeic acid ester fraction from E. breviscapus (Caf) significantly improved neurobehavioural performance and reduce percentage infarct volume compared with the vehicle group. Caf also inhibited microglial activation. Wang 2012


Scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, exhibited a neuroprotective effect in rats subjected to ischemia-induced brain damage and in oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced toxicity in rat cortical neurons. This effect was, at least in part, due to to augmented cellular antioxidant defense capacity. Guo 2011


Administration of Erigeron breviscapus extract for one month improved the impaired visual function in rats with persistently elevated intraocular pressure. Lu 2011


In rats with acute myocardial infarction, Erigeron breviscapus injection inhibited the expression of TNF-alpha and PAI-1, increased the expression of tPA, which can prevent the ongoing thrombopoiesis after AMI, and improved the cardiac function. [Article in Chinese] Huang 2010


In vitro and in vivo models indicated that scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, exerted its anti-cardiac hypertrophic activity via suppressing the Ca(2+)-mediated calcineurin and CaMKII pathways. Pan 2010


In rats fed a high cholesterol diet, co-adminstration of scutellarin, from E. breviscapus, markedly attenuated the increased serum total cholesterol induced by atherogenic diet. and caused a significant reduction in the atherogenic index. Li 2009


In rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia, administration of breviscapine, from E. breviscapus, improved spatial learning and memory in subsequent tests. The protection against the loss of ChAT immunopositive neurons in new cortex may be involved in its mechanisms. Liu 2009


The absorption rate and drug distribution of breviscapine, from E. breviscapus, in the rat brain tissues after intranasal administration were higher than those of oral and tail vein administration. [Article in Chinese] Shi 2009


In rats subjected to transient focal brain ischemia, pretreatment with scutellarin (from E. breviscapus) provided neuroprotective effects that might be associated with with inhibition of PARP-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Zhang 2009


Scutellarin, a flavonoid extracted from E. breviscapus, dose-dependently relaxed both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings precontracted with noradrenaline bitartrate but not with potassium chloride. Pan 2008


Pretreatment with breviscapine (from E. breviscapus) attenuated neuroapoptosis and regulated the protein expression related to apoptosis. Yiming 2008


Compared anti-inflammatory activities of E. breviscapus (EB), E. multiradiatus (EM), and Aster brachytrichus, all called "meiduoluomi" in Tibetan folk medicine, using animal models. EB and EM inhibited certain inflammatory modulator factors that cause neutrophil aggregation in inflammed tissue. Zhang 2008


Scutellarin (Scu) and breviscapine (Bvc)are compounds in E. breviscapus. Scu, but not Bvc, reduced myocardial infarction size in a rat heart ischemia model. Together, Scu and Brv reduced infarction size in focal brain ischemic rats. Protective effects of Scu were dose-dependent and better than Brv. Lin 2007


Treatment with breviscapine, from E. breviscapus, decreased streptozocin-induced diabetic liver injury in rats through attenuating liver lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Wu 2007


In a maxillary protraction rabbit model, tetracycline fluorochrome width was significantly increased in the E. breviscapus (EB) group. After 7 days, TGF-beta expression was stronger in the EB group. Results suggest EB accelerated suture distraction osteogenesis. [Article in Chinese] Zou 2007


In rabbits, Erigeron breviscapus by iontophoresis accelerated orthodontic tooth movement, and upregulated the expression of VEGF in periodontium in the earlier period of orthodontic tooth movement. [Article in Chinese] Liu 2006


Breviscapine treatment markedly inhibited both an increase of albuminuria and glomeruli hypertrophy and tubulointerstitial injury without modifying mean arterial blood pressure and creatinine clearance, conferring a renoprotective effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Qi 2006


Denghuang (composed of Astragalus root and Erigeron brevicapus) injection decreased the severity of cerebral infarction in experiments in dogs, rats, and gerbils. [Article in Chinese] Tang 2006


Pretreatment with scutellarin,from E, breviscapus, significantly reduced infarct volume, ameliorated neurological deficit and reduced tpermeability of the blood-brain barrier in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Hu 2005


Breviscapine, from E. breviscapus, provided cardioprotective effects in dog heart subjected to myocardial infarction and in dog myocardium in vitro subjected to hypoxia. Li 2004


E. breviscapus provided a partial protective effect against NMDA-induced neuron loss in the retinal ganglion layer in rats, but did not influence the number of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer when administered to control rats. [Article in Chinese] Shi 2004


In rats subjected to calibrated optic nerve crush injury, treatment with Erigeron breviscapus increased the survival rate of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and rescud and/or restored the injured RGC. [Article in Chinese] Jiang 2003


Treatment with Erigeron breviscapus was beneficial to the reestablishment of blood circulation and to the improvement of the neuronal metabolism and survival following the ischemic cerebral injury, in rats. [Article in Chinese] Liao 2003


In spontaneous hypertension rats, treatment with Erigeron breviscapus had a protective effect on the heart by reversing myocardial, interstitial and vascular remodeling and improving the rigidness of cardiac muscle. [Article in Chinese] Zhou 2002


In pigs subjected to hypoxic conditions, treatment with Erigeron breviscapus inhibited the proliferation and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Ding 2001


In a golden hampster model of leukoplakia carcinogenesis of the cheek pouch, injection of Erigeron breviscapus extract into the stomach reduced the rate of carcinogenesis and dysplasia. [Article in Chinese] Zhou 2000


In a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), treatment with Erigeron brevicapsus improved the optic nerve axoplasmic transportation blocked by acute elevation of IOP, [Article in Chinese]. Zhu 2000


In a rabbit model, breviscapine, from E. breviscapus, inhibited aortic thrombosis, reduced platelet 5-HT release reaction and platelet destruction. It inhibited the production of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha by platelets and endothelial cells respectively. [Article in Chinese] Wang 1989