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Analytical Chemistry

June 08, 2020

Analytical Chemistry from Pubmed.gov

Multivariate discriminatory analysis based on non-volatile characteristic components in different Panax notoginseng samples was developed using HPLC, principal component analysis, and mahalanobis distance and could be used to identify adulteration. Li 2020

 

A sequential gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry method was developed for characterization of polysaccharides in Panax notoginseng, P. ginseng, and P. quinquefolius. Xia 2020

 

Two new dammarane-type triterpenoids, notoginsenoside SY1 and SY2, were isolated from the stems and leaves of Panax notoginseng; structures were elucidated by IR, HRESIMS, and NMR. Yang 2020

 

A discriminatory method for detecting in-source positive fragmentation sapogenin product ions in characteristic chromatograms for Panax notoginseng is reported. Zhang 2020

 

Near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration were applied to identify and quantify several common adulterants in Panax notoginseng powder, with superior performance to a full-spectrum partial least squares (PLS) model. Chen 2019

 

Two new triterpene saponins, namely notoginsenoside Ng5 and Ng6 were isolated and characterized from the leaves of Panax notoginseng, along with five known ones. Some characterized compounds inhibited PC12 cell damage induced by serum deprivation and increased cell viability. Huang 2019

 

An efficient method for the separation of four minor saponins (gypenoside XVII, notoginsenoside Fe, ginsenoside Rd2, and notoginsenoside Fd) from Panax notoginseng leaves was established using biotransformation, macroporous resins, and subsequent preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Liu 2019

 

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used for the identification and quantification of Panax notoginseng adulterated with with rhizoma curcumae Curcuma longa, and rhizoma alpiniae offcinarum. Liu 2019

 

The metabolome of flower buds of Panax notoginseng was evaluated using UHPLC/IM-QTOF-HDMSE and compared to the flower metabolome of P. quinquefolium and P. ginseng, with 32 components identified as potential markers. Molecules 2019

 

Four novel and 4 known protopanaxatriol-type triterpenes and glucosides were isolated from Panax notoginseng rot roots and structures elucided via spectroscopic analysis (HRESIMS, NMR, UV, IR, and OR) and acidic hydrolysis; significant cytotoxic activity was observed with one new compound. Shang 2019

 

Eleven new dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, notoginsenosides, were isolated and characterized from Panax notoginseng leaves. Some compounds exhibited nitric oxide inhibitory activities in LPS-stumlated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Sun 2019

 

The extraction process of Panax notoginseng stem leaf flavonoid extracts was optimized to increase utilization rate and decrease material costs; antioxidant activity and antideposition of melanin of mouse B16 cells of P. notoginseng stem leaf extracts were also evaluated. Dai 2018

 

Three novel triterpene saponins (nototronesides A-C) possessing an unprecedented 6/6/9 fused tricyclic tetranordammarane core were isolated from Panax notoginseng leaves, with nototroneside B exhibiting a moderate neuroprotective effect on serum deficiency-induced cellular damage in PC12 cells. Liu 2018

 

An HPLC method integrating fingerprinting and determination of multiconstituents by single reference standard was established to investigate chemical profiles and active constituent contents of 215 notoginseng samples with different sizes from different botanical parts and geographical regions. Yang 2018

 

Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with orbitrap mass spectrometry were applied for the selective capture and rapid identification of Panax notoginseng metabolites in rat feces. Cai 2016

 

A Monte Carlo probability-based approach was applied to develop the design space of a chromatographic elution process for the purification of saponins in Panax notoginseng extract. Chen 2016

 

UHPLC-QTOF/MS combined with fluorescence microscopy and laser microdissection showed total content of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rd to be higher in Panax notoginseng xylem than in cork, phloem, and cortex. Chen 2016

 

A static headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry followed by a multivariate statistical analysis was developed to distinguish the volatile organic compound profiles of Panax notoginseng from other Panax species. Chen 2016

 

An automated multi-step preparative separation system obtained a total of 11 high quality saponins from Panax notoginseng (i.e. notoginsenosides R1, T5, ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, Rg2, Rh1, Rh4, Rd, 20 (S) -Rg3, and a mixture of ginsenosides Rk1 and Rg5). Lelu 2016

 

MALDI-TOF-MS imaging was employed for the localization of saponins in root tissues and for the rapid differentiation of three Panax species, including Panax notoginseng. Wang 2016

 

Panax notoginseng saponins were used to build a novel methodology involving liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for ion trapping, time-of-flight, and collision energy optimization for the target compounds. Wang 2016

 

A UV spectra method combined with chemometrics was developed to evaluate the relationship between Panax notoginseng sample chemical profiles and geographical region. [Article in Chinese] Wang 2016

 

A method for the quantitative estimation of polysaccharides and their fractions using high-performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector was applied to the study of Panax notoginseng polysaccharides. Cheong 2015

 

Nine novel minor dehydrogenated and cleavaged dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins were isolated and characterized from the steamed roots of Panax notoginseng, together with 14 known saponins, some of which were found to promote neurite outgrowth and acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Gu 2015

 

Thirty-eight dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins were isolated and characterized from steam-processed roots of Panax notoginseng, including 18 novel compounds, some of which exhibited promotional effects on the differentiation of PC12 cells. Gu 2015

 

Direct infusion-MS/MS combined with multivariate statistical analysis was used to distinguish Panax notoginseng from other Panax species. Kim 2015

 

An integrated high resolution mass spectrometric method for rapid screening of saponins in Panax notoginseng extract (Sanqi) was developed with 234 ginsenosides, including 67 potential new ones, characterized or tentatively identified. Lai 2015

 

A chemometric projection method, based on three-dimensional fingerprint spectra from high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection, simultaneously quantified notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rg1, ginsenosides Re, and ginsenosides Rb1 in Panax notoginseng. Li 2015

 

An ionic liquid salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the analysis of seven rare ginsenosides (i.e. Rg6, F4, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk3, Rk1, and Rg5) from Panax notoginseng injection. Li 2015

 

A reversed phase ion-pair chromatography method was developed to determine content of dencichine from Panax notoginseng. [Article in Chinese] Li 2015

 

A method coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization source was developed for the identification of the major saponins from Panax notoginseng powder. Liu 2015

 

Cell electronic index analysis was used to evaluate the quality and biological activity of Panax notoginseng from different habitats in China. [Article in Chinese] Sun 2015

 

Quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins in Panax notoginseng was established; when 6 spaonins were used as internal reference substances, concentration of the analyte in the sample solution was found to be the major influencing parameter. Wang 2015

 

An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography method was developed to rapidly identify both major and minor saponins in "Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong" lyophilized powder. Wang 2015

 

An ultra high-performance liquid mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of notoginsenoside R₁, ginsenoside Rg₁, ginsenoside Re, and 20(S) protopanaxatriol in beagle dog plasma after oral administration of a Panax notoginseng saponin preparation. Wu 2015

 

An HPLC method for simultaneous determination of notoginsenoside R₁ and ginsenosides Rg₁ Re, Rh₁, Rb₁, Rd, Rk₃, Rh₄, 20(S)-Rg₃ and 20(R)-Rg₃ in raw and steamed Panax notoginseng root and rhizome was evaluated. [Article in Chinese] Wu 2015

 

Multiple product ions filtering was used to classify and identify both non-target and target notoginsenosides in Panax notoginseng; subsequently, a neutral loss filtering technique was employed to trace prototype components and metabolites in rats (in vivo) and metabolites in rat feces. Xing 2015

 

High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection was used to quantify 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol saponins in Panax notoginseng. Xu 2015

 

A method to determine dencichine (β-ODAP) and its isomer (α-ODAP) from Panax notoginseng via pre-column derivatization HPLC was established. [Article in Chinese] Yang 2015

 

A universal multi heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography approach was used to simultaneously quantify five Panax notoginseng saponins (1.e. noto-R1, Re, Rg1, Rb1, and Rd) in eight different Chinese patent medicines. Yao 2015

 

A novel 12, 23-epoxy dammarane-type saponin together with four known compounds were isolated and characterized from Panax notoginseng root using various column chromatographic methods; structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. Yuan 2015

 

An ultra fast liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of Panax notoginseng saponins (i.e R1, Rg3, Rd, Rg2, Rb2, Rf, Rg1, Rb1, and Re) in rat plasma was developed. Zhou 2015

 

A quantitative method using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography was established to determine 10 ginsenoside active ingredients (Rg6, F4, Rk3, Rh4, 20(S) -Rg3, 20(R) -Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, 20(S)-Rh2, and 20(R)-Rh2) in steamed Panax notoginseng. [Article in Chinese] Chen 2014

 

Panax notoginseng before and after processing were analyzed by Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DIR); results of 2D-IR indicated decomposition of flavonoids, saccharides and saponins. [Article in Chinese)] Guang 2014

 

Click XIon zwitterionic stationary phase in hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode, using methanol as a weak eluent, was developed to efficiently separate isomeric saponins from Panax notoginseng leaves. Guo 2014

 

Three new dammarane-type triterpenoids together with 18 known compounds were isolated from Panax notoginseng leaves. The structure-activity relationship of the triterpenoids and their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity were evaluated. Li 2014

 

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze different tissues of Panax Notoginseng: rhizome, main root, rootlet, fibrous root, xylem, cambium, phloem, and epidermis. [Article in Chinese] Li 2014

 

The chemical profiles and cytotoxic effects of the total saponin fraction, 25% ethanol fraction, 50% ethanol fraction, and 85% ethanol fraction prepared by macroporous resin from the leaves of Panax notoginseng were evaluated. Qian 2014

 

Quantitative comparison and metabolite profiling of Panax notoginseng rhizome and root, as well as commercial samples, showing an overall higher content of saponins in rhizome, followed by main root, branch root, and fibrous root. Ginsenoside Rb2 was proposed as a potential marker. Wang 2014

 

Gamma-aminobutyric acid content of stems, flowers, and leaves of Panax notoginseng was measured by high performance liquid chromatography with no significant difference found; average content in stems and leaves was 0.49% and in flowers 0.53%. [Article in Chinese] Yang 2014

 

Analysis of total anthocyanins, total saponins, and the saponin monomer composition of purple and green Panax notoginseng root and rhizome shows certain compound content increases and decreases but type and relative content of saponin monomers remain unchanged. [Article in Chinese] Zhao 2014

 

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) were used to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials and distinguished different botanical parts of Panax notoginseng. Zhu 2014

 

Panax notoginseng samples were extracted in chloroform, ethanol, water, and 5% vanillin sulfuric acid to establish a UV fingerprint; optimized extraction time was 20 min with chloroform, ethanol and water but the fingerprint differed significantly with vanillin sulfuric acid. [Article in Chinese) Ding 2013

 

A novel protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside, 6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-20-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol-3-one, and 3 known compounds, were isolated and characterized from the roots of Panax notoginseng. The new compound exhibited cytotoxic activity against 5 human cancer cell lines. Fu 2013

 

Notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa, and K (N-R1, N-R4, N-Fa, and N-K), ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg2, and Rh1 (G-Rg1, G-Rb1, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rf, G-Rg2, and G-Rh1) of parts and growth-years of main roots, fibrous roots, and rhizomes of Panax notoginseng were analyzed by HPLC-diode array detection. Jia 2013

 

The volatile profile of Panax notoginseng was detected by Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction with GC/MS, with terpenoids found to be the main composition in different specifications and a-guaiene the fundamental ingredient. [Article in Chinese] Li 2013

 

A rapid and non-destructive visible and near infrared spectroscopy method was to quantify the notoginseng powder (NP) content in adulterated NP, including adulteration with Sophora flavescens powder, corn flour, and their mixtures. Nie 2013

 

A high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with diode array detection method was developed for the determination of dencichine in Panax notoginseng and related species, with a mean recovery of 102.0%. Qiao 2013

 

A study of the dynamics of ginsenoside biosynthesis in suspension culture of Panax notoginseng showed that when the callus is cultured for 25 days, the maximum yield of total saponins is up to 20.58 mg/g and mainly protopanaxatriol saponins. [Article in Chinese] Wang 2013

 

Chemical constituents of processed rhizomes of Panax notoginseng from a 70% ethanol extract were separated and characterized on macroporous resin, silica gel, RP-C18 and semi-preparative HPLC. [Article in Chinese] Yu 2013

 

Seven novel protopanaxatriol-type saponins were isolated from Panax notoginseng root and structures elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among them, three showed significant protective effects against antimycin A-induced L6 cell injury. Zhang 2013

 

A systems pharmacology approach, integrating ligand clustering, chemical space, docking simulation, and network analysis was used to compare the mechanisms of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax notoginseng at the molecular level for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Zheng 2013

 

HPLC fingerprint chromatograms of crude Panax notoginseng extracts, including cell wall-broken powder and cell wall-broken decoctions, were established. Chen 2012

 

The volatile compositions in dried white ginseng according to species (Panax ginseng, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolius) were analyzed and compared by applying multivariate statistical techniques to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data sets. Cho 2012

 

The cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activity of white ginseng and black ginseng roots of Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolium, and P. notoginseng, as well as active components, were evaluated. Lee 2012

 

A method coupling high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers using an eletrospray ionization source was developed for detection, characterization, and target separation of variants of protopanaxdiol saponin from leaves of Panax notoginseng. Mao 2012

 

A pressurized liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the qualitative determination of saponins in different parts of Panax notoginseng, including rhizome, root, fiber root, seed, stem, leaf and flower. Wan 2012

 

A comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography method coupling hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed phase liquid chromatography was developed to detect as many saponins as possible in extracts of Panax notoginseng, with a total of 224 found. Xing 2012

 

Orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis were used to discover novel ginsenosides from Panax notoginseng, P. ginseng, and P. quinquefolium ethanol extracts with 437 potential new ginsenosides characterized. Yang 2012

 

Spectral fingerprints acquired by flow injection(FI)-MS and multivariate analysis were used to differentiate Panax notoginseng from P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius; the method did not quantify sample components. Chen 2011

 

Spectral fingerprints of Panax notoginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. ginseng were acquired via UV, near-infrared, and MS; all allowed visual discrimination among species, discriminated between white and red ginseng, and showed distinctive subgroupings of red ginseng related to root quality. Chen 2011

 

A dynamic model was established for supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to extract lipophilic components from Panax notoginseng. [Article in Chinese] Duan 2011

 

In a comparison of white (air-dried) and red (steamed) roots of Panax notoginseng, P. ginseng, and P. quinquefolius, P. notoginseng exhibited the highest active saponin concentration and when steamed exhibited higher antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects against human colorectal cancer cells. Sun 2011

 

Centrifugal partition chromatography, a continuous liquid-liquid partition chromatography with no solid support matrix, combined with evaporative light scattering detection was employed for systematic separation and purification of saponins from Panax notoginseng. Wang 2011

 

High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was used to identify and quantify the chromatographic fingerprints of Xuesaitong injection, consisting of total saponins from Panax notoginseng. Yao 2011

 

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of ginsenosides Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1, and notoginsenoside R1 from Panax notoginseng was applied to evaluate the saponins from beagle dog plasma after oral administration. Chen 2010

 

Saccharide mapping based on specific enzymatic digestion of polysaccharides and chromatographic analysis was applied to discriminate the polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicines, including Panax notoginseng. Guan 2010

 

A UHPLC/TOFMS-based metabolomic platform was developed for the qualitative profiling of the multiparametric metabolic changes of raw Panax notoginseng during the steaming process. Toh 2010

 

Two minor novel dammarane-type saponins (5,6-didehydroginsenoside Rd and 5,6-didehydroginsenoside Rb1) were isolated and characterized from dried roots of Panax notoginseng along with 16 known saponins; structures of the new compounds were elucidated via spectroscopic and chemical methods. Wan 2010

 

An HPLC method coupled with a charged aerosol detector was optimized for extracting saponins from Panax notoginseng, including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, and Rd. [Article in Chinese]. Bai 2009

 

Saponin contents in six samples from five species, including Panax notoginseng, were determined using HPLC analysis with digitoxin and digoxin as internal standards and compared with a gravimetric method based on butanol-water partitioning. Balsevich 2009

 

A quantitative method was developed using gradient elution HPLC for the determination of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re, and ginsenoside Rb1 in different positions from Panax notoginseng. [Article in Chinese] Cui 2009

 

A rapid, sensitive, and accurate method based on solid-phase extraction followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry was developed for the identification and quantification of saponins in Panax notoginseng. Dan 2009

 

An ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for identification and quantification of active Panax notoginseng saponins (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, and icariin) in rat plasma after oral administration. Deng 2009

 

A total of 151 saponins, including 56 novel trace ones, were identified or tentatively characterized in Panax notoginseng extract based on retention times, HPLC/HRMS, HPLC/ESI-MS(n) fragmentation behaviors, and comparison with literature data. Liu 2009

 

The chemical constituents of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity against human colorectal cancer cells with the flower extract found to exhibit the highest anticancer activity compared to extracts from root, rhizome, and berry. Wang 2009

 

Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with principal component analysis was used to distinguish the extract of Panax notoginseng root from the extract of other plant parts of notoginseng and from the extract of Asian or American ginseng plant parts. Wang 2009

 

Four novel dammarane-type triterpene saponins (i.e. floranotoginsenosides A, B, C, and D) together with five known triterpene saponins were isolated from the flowers of Panax notoginseng and elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Wang 2009

 

The 2-6PC rule applied to analyze infrared spectral fingerprints of biologically active components of ginseng showed Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng to be differentiated from each other. Yap 2009

 

Two novel dammarane triterpene glycosides, notoginsenosides Rw 1 and Rw 2, were isolated from the rhizomes of Panax notoginseng, together with 20 known compounds. Cui 2008

 

Metabolite profiling of different parts of Panax notoginseng using rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis showed a clear separation of compositions among flower buds, roots, and rhizomes. Dan 2008

 

The total saponins of Panax notoginseng leaves were isolated from colored compounds by adsorption with ion-exchange resins and the decoloring capacity of six anions resins as adsorbent material was evaluated. [Article in Chinese] Fan 2008

 

An efficient high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method was developed to simultaneously quantify eight active saponins in the flower buds of Panax notoginseng, including notoginsenoside R(1) and ginsenosides Rg(1), Re, Rb(1), Rb(2), Rb(3), Rd, and F(2). Gao 2008

 

27 dammarane-type triterpenoids, including 4 novel glycosides (notoginsenosides ST-1-ST-3 and ST-5) and 3 known compounds, were isolated from steamed Panax notoginseng; structures were elucidated via 1D and 2D NMR spectra and chemical reactions. Liao 2008

 

A new multiple-column HPLC method for simultaneous determination of nucleobases, nucleosides, and saponins in the root of Panax notoginseng was evaluated. Qian 2008

 

AB-8 resin was found to be feasible for the separation and purification of total saponins from Panax notoginseng flower buds. [Article in Chinese] Wei 2008

 

The structure of an arabinoglucogalactan from Panax notoginseng roots was characterized and evaluated for antioxidant activity. Wu 2008

 

A rapid-resolution LC coupled with TOF-MS method was developed and validated for multiple compound analysis of traditional Chinese medicinal formulations, including those with Panax notoginseng. Xia 2008

 

Panax notoginseng metabolites were profiled using ultra-performance LC-quadrupole TOF MS and multivariate statistical analysis and compared to other Panax species; chemical markers such as ginsenoside Rf, 20(S)-pseudoginsenoside F11, malonyl gisenoside Rb1, and gisenoside Rb2 were identified. Xie 2008

 

A quantitative analysis of multi-components with a single marker method (QAMS) was established and validated to simultaneously determine four ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, Rh1, Rb1, and Rd) in Panax notoginseng. [Article in Chinese] Zhu 2008

 

Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was used to detect down-stream derivatives of metabolites from raw and steamed Panax notoginseng, allowing tentative authentication of unique biomarkers. Chan 2007

 

A high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of chemical and metabolic components in traditional Chinese medicinal prescription Fufang Danshen containing Panax notoginseng. Kite 2007

 

An HPLC-MS method using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation source was developed to differentiate Panax notoginseng from P. quinquefolium (American ginseng) and P. ginseng (Chinese ginseng) by identifying ginsenosides Rf and F11 and notoginsenoside R1. Leung 2007

 

Two polyacetylenes (panaxydol and panaxynol) were identified from Panax notogiseng root using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method with the ratio of panaxydol to panaxynol shown to be a marker for differentiating ginseng, notoginseng, and American ginseng. Liu 2007

 

Pressurized liquid extraction and HPLC-evaporative light scattering detection comparing 12 major saponins in Panax notoginseng, P. ginseng, and P. quinquefolius showed contents to vary up to 4-14-fold between the highest (P. notoginseng) and the lowest (P. ginseng) values. Wan 2007

 

A HPLC-DAD-ELSD method quantified the 12 components in 10 commercial samples from 3 formulas by 7 manufacturers of Fufang Danshen preparations, including Panax notoginzeng. Wei 2007

 

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative determination of the non-protein amino acid dencichine in plant samples of Panax notoginseng and adventitious roots directly from explants. Xie 2007

 

Eight compounds were isolated from an 80% alcohol extract of Panax notoginseng rhizomes and their structures were identified. [Article in Chinese] Zeng 2007

 

20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3beta, 12beta 20-triol, a novel dammarane triterpene sapogenin from Panax notoginseng, was isolated, characterized, and evaluated for cytotoxicity against 12 human cancer cell lines. Zhao 2007

 

A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was employed to identify and recover ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, and Rd from Panax notoginseng root extract in rat tissues (kidney, liver, heart, spleen and lung) following oral administration. Li 2006

 

Random amplified polymorphic DNA methods combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and eastern blotting with monoclonal-secreting hybridomas used to identify Panax notoginseng from P. quinquefolius and P. japonicus showed ginsenoside Rc to absent from P. notoginseng. Tanaka 2006

 

A HPLC and pressurized liquid extraction method was developed for simultaneous determination of notoginsenoside R1, Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, and Rd in Panax notoginseng root extract. Wan 2006

 

Chemical characteristics and eight major saponins from Panax notoginseng plant parts, including the root, fiber root, rhizome, stem, leaf, flower, and seed, were quantified and compared using HPLC-ELSD, with results showing obvious differences between underground and aerial parts. Wan 2006

 

A novel HPLC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 11 major triterpene saponins from Panax notoginseng (namely notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rg2, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd, and Rg3. Wan 2006

 

Panax notoginseng pressurized liquid extract was analyzed via HPLC-DAD; chromatographic characteristics of 28 samples from different places were established with 8 peaks among 13 typical ones in the chromatograms identified by comparing with reference compounds. [Article in Chinese] Wan 2006

 

A simple, reproducible, and sensitive micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was developed for the separation and determination of 10 saponins from Panax notoginseng, two of which are minor saponins (i.e. Rh1 and Rg2). Wang 2006

 

A gradient elution HPLC procedure with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.025% aqueous phosphoric acid was used to identify the components of Fufang Danshen formula, which contains Panax notoginseng. Zeng 2006

 

Solid-phase extraction and HPLC/ESI-MS were used to identify the saponins from Panax notoginseng in a traditional Chinese herbal formula. Zhang 2006

 

A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for detecting dencichine in Panax notoginseng extracts and drug preparations was developed. [Article in Chinese] Zhu 2006

 

Active saponins from Panax notoginseng root extract were identified using different extraction processes according to an orthogonal array experimental design with variable solvents, volume, and time. The highest recovery was found in 20 volumes of water extracted for 24 hours. Dong 2005

 

A novel dammarane glycoside was isolated from the hydrolysate of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides containing G-Rb(3) from Panax notoginseng leaves and exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells and partial reversal of doxorubicin resistance. He 2005

 

17 randomly sampled 3-year-old Panax notoginseng roots from a single Chinese farm were evaluated for localized differences in concentrations of six bioactive saponins with results showing genetic diversity and variation of saponin contents between individual roots. Hong 2005

 

Contents of dencichine in raw and steamed Panax notoginseng roots, 11 pairs of raw and steamed P. notoginseng products, P. ginseng roots, and P. quinquefolium roots were analyzed via HILIC/ESI-MS/MS and compared, with quantifyiable differences found. Koh 2005

 

A high-performance liquid chromatography-UV method was developed to simultaneously quantify notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, and Rd saponins from Panax notoginseng. Li 2005

 

Chemical profiles of the cortex and outer layers of Panax notoginseng root were analyzed using chromatographic and spectrometric methods, with differences in composition found. [Article in Chinese] Liu 2005

 

HPLC-ELSD was used to quantify levels of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, and Rb1 from Panax notoginseng and Xuesaitong injection, a traditional Chinese formulation including the plant. [Article in Chinese] Sha 2005

 

In order to identify the existence of Panax species in herbal medicine preparations, gradient PCR was performed on 40 types of herbs, including Panax notoginseng Shim 2005

 

A qualitative analysis of saponins from Panax notoginseng was described using pressurized solvent extraction coupled with LC-ESI-MS. [Article in Chinese] Wan 2005

 

A rapid, simple, accurate and reproducible chromatographic method is described for the identification and of ginsenoside compound-K in the fermentation liquor of Panax notoginseng saponins. [Article in Chinese] Zhou 2005

 

Panax notoginseng root powder alcohol insoluble residue was found to contain polysaccharides typical of Type I primary cell walls, distinguishabe by very high levels of Type I 4-galactans and low levels of xyloglucan; major amino acids included Leu, Asx, Glx, Ala, Thr, and Val. Zhu 2005

 

The minor bioactive saponins of Panax notoginseng leaves, including one novel ginsenoside, were separated and purified by column chromatography on silica gel and thin layer gel. [Article in Chinese] Jiang 2004

 

A chromatographic method in tandem with pattern matching was developed to objectively and quantitatively differentiate whole chromatograms of raw and steamed Panax notoginseng. Quantitative differences were correlated to duration of steaming. Lau 2004

 

The hydrophilic fraction of Panax notoginseng was found to decrease in polarity after acetylation, while the application of an evaporative light-scattering detector detected carbohydrates and different patterns of change in the retention of peaks. Li 2004

 

Chromatography in tandem with spectrometry was used to identify ginsenosides Rg1 and Re and their isomers from Panax notoginseng, and to differentiate P. notoginseng from P. ginseng, and P. quinquefolius. [Article in Chinese] Xiao 2004

 

A method for obtaining the metabolic fingerprint of Panax notoginseng using high-performance liquid chromatography is described. [Article in Chinese] Yang 2004

 

A comparative study on the saponins Panax taxa, including Panax notoginseng, was conducted using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with similarities of chemical constitution seen among the closely phylogenetically related taxa. Zhu 2004

 

Highly polar dammarane saponins from Panax notoginseng were separated at a preparative scale using high-speed counter-current chromatography and the chemical structures of three ginsenosides and one notoginsenoside elaborated via electrospray ionization MS-MS and NMR analysis. Du 2003

 

Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry coupled with automatic MS/MS scanning and post-acquisition neutral loss data analysis profiled the malonylated and acetylated ginsenosides in ginseng extracts with differences seen among Panax ginseng , P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng. Kite 2003

 

Six saponins (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rd) in raw and steamed Panax notoginseng were compared using a novel high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection method. Lau 2003

 

Five novel dammarane-type triterpene saponins (notoginsenosides-O, -P, -Q, -S, and -T) and 9 known protopanaxadiol oligoglycosides were isolated from Panax notoginseng roots and flower buds with the principal dammarane-type triterpene saponins exhibiting hepatoprotective effects. Yoshikawa 2003

 

Six saponins with low sugar chain moieties were isolated from the leaves of Panax notoginseng (20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Mc, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rh1, and daucosterol. [Article in Chinese] Chen 2002

 

A unique, base no-specific, thermolabile, heterodimeric ribonuclease (RNase) with antifungal and antiproliferative activities was isolated from roots of Panax notoginseng. Lam 2001

 

A gradient high-performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light-scattering detection for the determination of major saponins in Panax notoginseng extracts is described. Li 2001

 

Novel dammarane-type triterpene saponins (i.e. notoginsenosides-L, -M, and -N) were isolated from the glycosidic fraction of the dried roots of Panax notoginseng, while notoginsenosides-D, -G, -H, and -K were found to increase serum IgG levels in mice sensitized with ovalbumin. Yoshikawa 2001

 

Using HPLC fingerprinting the peak height ratio of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Re was found to differentiate Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolium, and P. notoginseng. [Article in Chinese] Zhai 2001

 

A HPLC-ELSD method was shown to successfully determine ginsenoside R1 in Panax notoginseng root extract with a recovery rate of 101.57% and a relative standard deviation of 1.98%. [Article in Chinese] Wang 2000

 

Nine novel dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides and an acetylenic fatty acid glycoside, together with 14 known dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, were isolated from dried roots of Panax notoginseng. Yoshikawa 1997

 

Six saponins were isolated from the fruit pedicels of Panax notoginseng for the first time. They were identified as ginsenoside-Rc, -Rb3, -Re, notoginsenoside-Fe, -R1, and gypenoside IX. [Article in Chinese] Wei 1992

 

Five main saponins, ginsengoside Rb1, Re, R1, Rg1, and Rh1 were separated from Panax notoginseng cell cultures. [Article in Chinese] Zhou 1991

 

Sanchinan-A, a reticuloendothelial system activating arabinogalactan from sanchi-ginseng (roots of Panax notoginseng). [No abstract] Ohtani 1987

 

Studies on the flavonoids from the leaves of Panax notoginseng. [No abstract] [Article in Chinese] Wei 1987

 

Isolation and identification of sanchinoside B1 and B2 from rootlets of Panax notoginseng. [No abstract] [Article in Chinese] Wei 1985

 

Five sapogenins, namely panaxadiol; panaxatriol; dammar-20(22)en-3beta, 12beta,26-triol; and 20(R)-dammaran-3beta, 12beta,20,25-tetrol; and an oxepane derivative probably arising from acid catalyzed dehydration and rearrangement of panaxadiol, were isolated from Panax notoginseng leaves. Junxiang 1984

 

Sapogenins in the flower buds of Panax notoginseng. [No abstract] [Article in Chinese] Wei 1984

 

Sapogenins from rootlets of Panax notoginseng. [No abstract] [Article in Chinese] Wei 1984

 

Five sapogenins were isolated from hydrolysis of the crude saponin extract from the leaves of Panax notoginseng, including panaxadiol and panaxatriol. Junxian 1982

 

Dammarane saponins of flower buds of Panax notoginseng were evaluated. [No abstract] Taniyasu 1982